Papacy - A Historical Perspective
242. Born in Naples. Elected July 15,
1691 - died September 27,1700.
He forced priests to wear a
cassock and to do spiritual exercises everyday.
Louis XIV renounced the "Gallican propositions" and the Pope
recognised the Bishops of the King. He called the 16th Jubilee
He supported the missions to Asia, America and Africa.
Thanks to the success recorded by Prince Eugene of Savoy in Zentha
against Mustafa, Innocent XII could witness the restoration of peace
between Austria and Turkey, which marked the fall of the Turks.
In Ripa Grande, he set up the St. Michael Nursery Home for the
vocational training of youths;today, this building is the site of the
Ministry of Cultural Heritage.
He was buried in a very unpretentious sarcophagus, ordered by
himself. His pontificate lasted about 9 years and 3 months.
Clement XI :
243. Born in Urbino. Elected December 8,
1700 - died March 19, 1721.
After having heard the news
about his election, he accepted after 7 days to be absolutely certain
of his eligibility.
Learned and keen to the arts, he enriched the Vatican Library with
ancient eastern codes.
He concluded the 16th Jubilee Year (1700).
He founded the Church in the Philippine Islands and sent
missionaries to China, Persia and India.
He was the last Pope to have a beard or goatee.
In the Bull "unigenitus" (1713) he reaffirmed that the Jansenists
were to be considered heretics.
He was the first one to order that no work of art was to be
taken away from Rome, therefore establishing the first legislation to
protect its artistic heritage.
He created an Academy of painting and sculpture at the
He was keen about archaeology, which began to have its first
scientific followers in this period.
He was buried under the pavement of the Choir Section in St.
Peter's. His pontificate was one of the longest
lasting 21 years and 3 months.
244. Born in Rome. Elected May 18, 1721 -
died March 7, 1724.
He reconfirmed the Bull
"Unigenitus" to the French clergy who had not accepted it.
He firmly took action in the Spanish Church, which wanted to
ignore the authority of Rome, even if not officially.
He started the definitive restoration of San Giovanni in
He sent 100,000 scudos to the Knights of Malta to support their
fight against Islam.
Like his predecessor Clement XI, he legalised the lotto game in
He is buried in the Vatican Grottoes. His pontificate lasted about
2 years and 10 months.
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