The M+G+R Foundation

The Papacy

A Historical Perspective


The purpose of this document is to acquaint those interested in the Papacy with the true Petrine Ministry of the Bishop of Rome.

This is not a theological treatise in which the author is interested in showing the reader his command of the language by using a profusion of words, seldom used in normal conversation, and which usually convey little. This is a "bare bones facts and figures" brief historical account of those who occupied the Chair of Peter, those who tried to occupy it and those who tried to steal the right to occupy it.

In other documents (1) The M+G+R Foundation has clearly stated its position regarding the Bishop of Rome. Nonetheless, in summary:

The legitimate Bishop of Rome, the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, is the Successor of Peter and, personally, under normal circumstances (2), the ultimate arbiter of the Doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church.

Since the Church claims that its Teachings are based on Divine Revelations and Tradition, we feel that the best way to understand the Petrine Ministry and the source of much of the Catholic Tradition is by virtually meeting each and every one who occupied the Chair of Peter.

We must all keep in mind one very important detail. Although, without a doubt, the Holy Spirit of God Was, Is and Will ever Be the Infallible Guide of the Church, the obedient response to such Divine Guidance depends on the action of man.

That is why H.H. John Paul II has sought Divine forgiveness so many times for the errors and atrocities committed by those who had the commanding voice in the Church at the particular time in question (3) and who did not submit to the Infallible Guidance of the Holy Spirit of God.


We will break up the historical presentation in short segments by publishing a brief history of four Popes at a time. The groupings will be indicated by the period (in years) covered, and may be accessed through the Papal Index Link.

Papal matters of significant note will be highlighted by underscoring the appropriate portions of the text. When appropriate, The M+G+R Foundation will make commentaries, however, we will strive to keep those commentaries to a minimum.

To avoid unnecessary controversy we have drawn the information from an official source.

Papal Index


(1) About Us and About Miguel de Portugal

(2) As the reader reviews the Papacies of centuries past, the reader will see that some teachings-by-example were certainly not from God. These circumstances were the ones which are considered "not normal circumstances". Nonetheless, in time errors and abuses were usually corrected because God saw to it.

(3) The Papacy In Historical Perspective. The Seldom Told History.

Originally posted on Pentecost Sunday. June 3, 2001.

© Copyright 2001 - 2022 by The M+G+R Foundation. All rights reserved. However, you may freely reproduce and distribute this document as long as: (1) Appropriate credit is given as to its source; (2) No changes are made in the text without prior written consent; and (3) No charge is made for it.

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